A dust collection system is a vital air quality control system primarily utilized in commercial, industrial, and residential production facilities to improve ventilation and airborne air quality by removing fine particulate matter in the atmosphere and indoor air. Dust collection systems function on the principal of convey, collection, and transport. These processes are accomplished through a series of devices known as “dust collectors”. The primary units or components that make up a dust collection system are ventilators, vacuum cleaners, dust collection bags, and filters. It is essential that these systems are maintained properly to ensure their efficacy and safety.
The most effective dust collection system includes ventilators and a screw conveyor. The ventilator provides the necessary draft from outside the buildings where dust collection equipment is located. The screw conveyor has been a standard piece of equipment in industry for more than one hundred years and continues to be an industry standard today. These conveyors consist of belt, screw conveyor, boom and scissor or scroll mechanism, all of which drive rollers or casters, which are then guided by a rotor to move the dust into collection bags.
The collection bag is manufactured out of soft plastic material that has holes in the top, bottom and middle for attaching to a suction hose. An air intake fan pushes the dust into the bag, while the intake fan also circulates air. The air is then blown through the suction hose and into the dust collector. Suction fans are of the continuous flow variety and are designed to push dust into the collection bags as well as to blow the dust out into the atmosphere. A screw conveyor is generally comprised of four parts: belt, boom, scissor or scroll mechanism and an air intake fan. There are some types of conveyor that also contain a variable speed controller.
The dust collection system also has a dust collector bag which contains the dust particles. It is constructed out of polyethylene and is available in various sizes. The size that is most often used is the 4-inch hose, but other sizes are available upon request. Other systems use a nylon sleeve with a variety of attachment fittings to hold different size hose.
The dust collection systems are subject to occasional inspection and cleaning. Most companies recommend regular cleaning and sanitizing of the systems, as this will extend the life of the equipment and ensure optimum performance. When dust collection systems are not properly maintained, they can fail to efficiently collect dust particles, which will result in excessive moisture in the room and reduced productivity. Some dust collectors can be operated manually, while others are operated electronically, requiring no maintenance at all. Some dust collection systems are powered by electricity, while others operate on an acetylene gas fueled system.
The filter in the dust collection system usually collects bacteria and other microorganism that might be present in the air. The filters also keep out dust particles that are too small to pass through the mechanical parts of the machine. However, some dust collection systems require manual backflow prevention. In this case, a pump removes the dirty air directly from a storage tank and feeds it into the filter. It is important to regularly inspect the filtration to ensure that it is effective and able to remove the contaminants.
Some dust collection systems are equipped with an optional HEPA filter. A HEPA filter is recommended for areas where air quality is poor or for areas that have a high air-to-cloth ratio. An air-to-cloth ratio is defined as the amount of dust that is airborne per square foot of area. A high air-to-cloth ratio will reduce the effectiveness of the fan, especially in a hot, humid environment.
When selecting a dust collection system, it is essential to choose one that is both effective and economical. It is also advisable to select a system that is able to maintain an air velocity that is at least 20 times greater than the air velocity in the surrounding atmosphere. By doing so, the industrial dust collector will be able to extract the needed dust at high efficiency.